Oleh: Mas Edy

On shore, 20 January 2010

 

MARPOL POLLUTION – 73/78

Marpol contains 6 annexes, concerned with preventing different forms of marine pollution from ships:

Annex I: Prevention of pollution by oil

Annex II: Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances

Annex III: Prevention of pollution by harmful substances in packaged form

Annex IV: Prevention of pollution by sewage from ships

Annex V: Prevention of pollution by garbage from ships

Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships

1. Annex I : Peraturan pencegahan pencemaran yang ditimbulkan oleh minyak (Oil) in bulk.

2. Annex II : Peraturan pencegahan pencemaran yang ditimbulkan oleh cairan berbahaya dalam bentuk curah ( Noxious liquid substances in bulk )

3. Annex III : Peraturan pencegahan pencemaran yang ditimbulkan oleh Zat – Zat berbahaya dalam kemasan ( Harmfull substances in package )

4. Annex IV : Peraturan pencegahan pencemaran yang ditimbulkan oleh pembuangan kotoran ( Sewage )

5. Peraturan pencegahan pencemaran yang ditimbulkan oleh Sampah ( Garbage ).

6. Peraturan pencegahan pencemaran yang ditimbulkan oleh Pencemaran udara ( Air pollution )

Isi dalam MARPOL bukan melarang pembuangan zat-zat pencemar ke laut, tetapi mengatur cara pembuangan nya. Agar dgn pembuangan tersebut laut tidak tercemar ( rusak ), dan ekosistim laut tetap terjaga.

Seperti pada Annex I , kapal masih membuang minyak kelaut dgn ketentuan :

 

· Konsentrasi minyak harus < 15 ppm (part per million). Kapal dalam keadaan berlayar, lokasi pembuangan > 12 mil laut dari pantai terdekat

· Tiap 30 liter minyak harus di buang secara merata sepanjang 1 mil ( 30 ltr/mil ). Kapal dalam keadaan berlayar, lokasi pembuangan > 50 mil laut dari pantai terdekat.

Pembuangan keluar kapal, pada umumnya hanya di perbolehkan dilaut. Tetapi tidak di laut SPECIAL. Ini tidak di perbolehkan. Yang termasuk dalam laut special adalah:

· Mediterranean sea

· Baltic sea

· Black sea

· Red sea

· Gulf area

· Gulf of Aden

· Antartic

· North west European waters & North sea

Peralatan untuk membantu cara pembuangan dan untuk pengawasan dalam pelaksanaan Marpol:

1. ODME

2. CWS

3. Oil / Water Interfance Detector

4. Incinerator

5. – Oil Record Book Vol I. untuk kamar mesin. Vol II. Untuk Bag deck.

– Cargo Record Book utk Chemical tanker

– Garbage Record Book.

6. SOPEP ( Ship Oil Pollution Emergency Plan )

MARPOL 73-78 signatories

Marpol 73/78 is the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978. ("Marpol" is short for marine pollution and 73/78 short for the years 1973 and 1978.)

Marpol 73/78 is one of the most important international marine environmental conventions. It was designed to minimize pollution of the seas including dumping, oil and exhaust pollution. Its stated object is: to preserve the marine environment through the complete elimination of pollution by oil and other harmful substances and the minimization of accidental discharge of such substances.

The original MARPOL Convention was signed on 17 February 1973, but did not come into force. The current Convention is a combination of 1973 Convention and the 1978 Protocol. It entered into force on 2 October 1983. As at 31 December 2005, 136 countries, representing 98% of the world’s shipping tonnage, are parties to the Convention.